Green catalysts with Earth-abundant metals accelerate production of bio-based plastic
How crystalline structure can affect the performance of MnO2 catalysts
Date:January 7, 2019
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Scientists have developed and analyzed a novel catalyst for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, which is crucial for generating new raw materials that replace the classic non-renewable ones used for making many plastics.
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have developed and analyzed a novel catalyst for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, which is crucial for generating new raw materials that replace the classic non-renewable ones used for making many plastics.
It should be no surprise to most readers that finding an alternative to non-renewable natural resources is a key topic in current research. Some of the raw materials required for manufacturing many of today’s plastics involve non-renewable fossil resources, coal, and natural gas, and a lot of effort has been devoted to finding sustainable alternatives. 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is an attractive raw material that can be used to create polyethylene furanoate, which is a bio-polyester with many applications.
One way of making FDCA is through the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), a compound that can be synthesized from cellulose. However, the necessary oxidation reactions require the presence of a catalyst, which helps in the intermediate steps of the reaction so that the final product can be achieved.
Many of the catalysts studied for use in the oxidation of HMF involve precious metals; this is clearly a drawback because these metals are not widely available. Other researchers have found out that manganese oxides combined with certain metals (such as iron and copper) can be used as catalysts. Although this is a step in the right direction, an even greater finding has been reported by a team of scientists from Tokyo Tech: manganese dioxide (MnO2) can be used by itself as an effective catalyst if the crystals made with it have the appropriate structure.
The team, which includes Associate Professor Keigo Kamata and Professor Michikazu Hara, worked to determine which MnO2 crystal structure would have the best catalytic activity for making FDCA and why. They inferred through computational analyses and the available theory that the structure of the crystals was crucial because of the steps involved in the oxidation of HMF. First, MnO2 transfers a certain amount of oxygen atoms to the substrate (HMF or other by-products) and becomes MnO2-δ. Then, because the reaction is carried out under an oxygen atmosphere, MnO2-δ quickly oxidizes and becomes MnO2 again. The energy required for this process is related to the energy required for the formation of oxygen vacancies, which varies greatly with the crystal structure. In fact, the team calculated that active oxygen sites had a lower (and thus better) vacancy formation energy.
To verify this, they synthesized various types of MnO2 crystals and then compared their performance through numerous analyses. Of these crystals, β-MnO2 was the most promising because of its active planar oxygen sites. Not only was its vacancy formation energy lower than that of other structures, but the material itself was proven to be very stable even after being used for oxidation reactions on HMF.
The team did not stop there, though, as they proposed a new synthesis method to yield highly pure β-MnO2 with a large surface area in order to improve the FDCA yield and accelerate the oxidation process even further. “The synthesis of high-surface-area β-MnO2 is a promising strategy for the highly efficient oxidation of HMF with MnO2 catalysts,” states Kamata.
With the methodological approach taken by the team, the future development of MnO2 catalysts has been kick-started. “Further functionalization of β-MnO2 will open up a new avenue for the development of highly efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various biomass-derived compounds,” concludes Hara. Researches such as this one ensure that renewable raw materials will be available to humankind to avoid all types of shortage crises.
Materials provided by Tokyo Institute of Technology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Eri Hayashi, Yui Yamaguchi, Keigo Kamata, Naoki Tsunoda, Yu Kumagai, Fumiyasu Oba, Michikazu Hara. Effect of MnO2 Crystal Structure on Aerobic Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2019; DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b09917
Tokyo Institute of Technology. “Green catalysts with Earth-abundant metals accelerate production of bio-based plastic: How crystalline structure can affect the performance of MnO2 catalysts.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 January 2019.
PalletFest is coming! My Hair Trip Salon Denver is doing all of the hair and makeup for the upcycled fashion show on Saturday. (10/11/14)
Upcycle Events was born through the process of creating Palletfest. Our mission is to spread the word and knowledge of upcycling through fun interactive experiences. Our goal is to provide our communities with a chance to explore the world of upcycling. Upcycling promotes creativity and gives old objects new life. Not only can we make items that are beautiful, fun and functional but we’re also able to keep tons of waste out of our landfills in the process. From the simple to the sensational, the practical to the impossible, from waste to grace, and from trash to treasure, Opportunities are truly endless through upcycling. A whole new world of art and décor are upon us and Upcycle Events wants to be a the forefront of this movement. And that’s how palletfest came about. You can make practically anything out of pallets from a garden planter to a wine rack to a table to a house and in this case a Festival.
The Upcycled Fashion show takes place Saturday Oct 11th from 5:15-5:45 pm
See fashion models hit the catwalk in a live upcycled runway fashion show. Wearing incredible, sophisticated, beautiful, one-of-a-kind clothing and décor, the models will change your impression of upcycled materials. The show will take place on Saturday night, alongside our headlining band.Leave a reply
Certifiably Green Salon
My Hair Trip Salon Denver is Colorado’s only “Green” salon, barbershop, art gallery and jewelry and apparel boutique.
We have wanted to work in phases from our first day of building, throughout the buildout process, into opening, into our everyday practices as a business and a team, towards the goal of being a certified, green business.
When My Hair Trip Salon Denver teamed up with the City of Denver and the Department of Environmental Health this year, the vision of how to actually become a sustainable, green business started to become a reality.
Working with a Sustainability Advisor in the Certifiably Green Denver program, we were able to analyze, and update, sustainable practices in energy, waste, water, and transportation.
We did it! Today our dream of being a certified green business is a reality! We are officially recognized as certified green salon, and we are proud to be.
My Hair Trip Salon Denver is Colorado’s only organic hair salon, barbershop, art gallery, and jewelry and apparel boutique. Located in the heart of the Denver Art District on Santa Fe, This Denver salon is at 773 Santa Fe Drive, Denver, CO, 80204. The salon’s focus in on customer service and customer satisfaction, specializing in chemical free products and services.Leave a reply
My Hair Trip Salon Denver continues to grown and evolve. It’s a ton of fun watching the process and seeing the end results. We are, of course, a top hair salon in the city of Denver. We are Denver’s newest eco-friendly hair salon specializing in chemical-free products and services. My Hair Trip Denver is your one stop shop for all of your organic health and beauty needs.
My Hair Trip, along with being one of the top salons in Denver, is a boutique as well. We carry hats, sunglasses, shirts, scarves, ties, wallets, purses, necklaces, earrings, pendants, pins, Colorado state flags, and tons of eco-friendly health and beauty products. We are always adding more and more local designers to our shop and it is so great to be able to sell their stuff for them. We love making people happy.
We are also now carrying all natural, vegan, hemp ice cream sandwiches. We got Mocha Mint, Unbleached Vanilla, Double Dutch Chocolate, Mango Love, Jasmine Flowers, all organic sugar free, gluten free, all delicious. If you’ve ever been to Red Rocks for a show then you’ve likely crossed paths with a mythical character named Aqua Das or just “Das” for short, he has been slanging these delicious natural ice cream treats at shows since the 70’s. Now My Hair Trip Salon Denver and Das have joined forces and it is awesome!
So we are Denver’s newest hair salon and boutique with apparel and accessories, we are also a barbershop. We do full men’s services including straight razor shaves. We keep it old school at our salon and barbershop. We are a Salon Denver. Salon Denver we are. If you are looking for a quality haircut and/or shave we got you covered. We want to be the best salon Denver.
My Hair Trip Denver is also an active art gallery. Our salon is located in the heart of the Denver Art District, at 8th and Santa Fe in downtown Denver. Right now we are displaying 12 different local artists and 15 different designers. We have paintings, photography, woodworking, jewelry, crafts and all sorts of awesome stuff from some of Denver’s most creative people. So fare our clients are loving being able to be surrounded by art as we help them relax, recharge, and get the look they want.
We are a professional eco-friendly hair salon with a focus on being green and giving our clients the look and the feel they want. We are a barbershop featuring old school straight razor shaves and barber-style cuts. We are a boutique featuring local designs and goods, and we are an active art gallery with new art constantly rotating through.Leave a reply